Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Report of Defense Science Board Task Force on Computer Security. Rather than turning off the file safeguards in the system, necessitating concern for user identification, protection of terminals, etc. A user must not be able to acquire information about the security controls or the files when access is denied him for any reason. To do this, the computer system must have an internal catalog of user clearance levels and access privileges, as well as a catalog of the characteristics of all terminals connected to the system. It is reasonable that the system assist the user by asking him in turn for level of classification, codewords, dissemination labels, and information labels (as applicable). Note that classification labels are not mentioned, since the particular labels accessed by a given clearance can always be determined. Comment. In such a computer system. These include provisions for logging user entry to the terminal area, removal of hardcopy, proper marking of hardcopy not marked by the system, clearing of displays, and securing as required during orderly shutdown. In the event of an automatically detected failure of a control mechanism, it is clear that the computing system must shift to a degraded mode of operation because of the risk of unauthorized divulgence. It is not possible to make positive statements about the frequency with which internal self-checking must be performed. Access to classified information stored within the computer system shall be on the basis of specific authorization from the System Security Officer to receive such information, or by automatic processes operating under his control and authority. There are only three formal levels of national classification: Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential, but it is expedient from the computer point of view also to consider Unclassified as a fourth level of classification. Because systems are vulnerable to security threats posed by operations and maintenance personnel, it is strongly recommended that for systems handling extremely sensitive information all software and hardware maintenance be performed as a joint action of two or more persons. Resource-sharing systems are those that distribute the resources of a computer system (e.g., memory space, arithmetic units, peripheral equipment, channels) among a number of simultaneous users. Delete this entry from the clearance set. For systems that utilize dial-up communication links, or in which physical access control is undesirable, a password scheme or its equivalent must be used to provide authentication. With a lot happening on the web, it becomes an utmost need to secure the content from loss and interception as there hovers a constant vision of malice to disrupt the web world security. A system functioning in a segregated mode requires that all users are cleared to a specified level, all terminals are physically protected to that level, and all communication lines are secure to that level. The specific security parameters should not be available to such programmers, and must be inserted by the local System Security Officer. The problem of emanation security is covered by existing regulations; there are no new aspects to this problem raised by modern computing systems. Furthermore, it must be possible for system personnel, working at a control console, to pre-empt selected users or to deny access to a given user or terminal (e.g., if an attempt to access the system with improper authorization has been detected). Comment: The users are generally excluded from the System Administrator's management purview, although personnel under his control may also be users at times. While responsibility for instituting and maintaining physical protection measures is normally assigned to the organization that controls the terminal, it is advisable for a central authority to establish uniform physical security standards (specific protection measures and regulations) for all terminals in a given system to insure that a specified security level can be achieved for an entire system. This is a desirable feature, not only from a consideration of system accountability, but also from the point of view of protection for the user. REQUIRED LABELS: HANDLE VIA APPLE CHANNELS ONLY; Consider a hypothetical example (named ROUND ROBIN) in which it is assumed that at the Secret level there are two categories of information, called AGILE and BANANA, accessing information labelled respectively as ANN and BETTY. However, it is conceivable that even for System Personnel, access could be segmented so that such clearance would not be absolutely necessary. 2) can exist. Not only can he execute programs written in standard compiler languages, but he also can create new programming languages, write compilers for them, and embed them within the system. Steven Furnell, Sokratis Katsikas, Javier Lopez, Artech House, 2008 - 362 pages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, confidentiality, integrity and availability of information, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, "COBIT Framework | Risk & Governance | Enterprise IT Management - ISACA", X.800 : Security architecture for Open Systems Interconnection for CCITT applications, ISO 7498-2 (Information processing systems – Open systems interconnection – Basic Reference Model – Part 2: Security architecture), Information Security Forum's Standard of Good Practice for Information Security,, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2012, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A.6: How information security is organised. Lastly, the switch gear itself is subject to error and can link the central processor to the wrong user terminal. 2). There must be safeguards that insure that the system responds to each user appropriately to his clearance, and tests must be applied during the various certification phases that verify the presence and efficacy of these protection mechanisms. Physical location, including building location, room number, and the cognizant agency. Security controls can be classified by several criteria. Starting with Revision 4 of 800-53, eight families of privacy controls were identified to align the security controls with the privacy expectations of federal law. In many cases, the same word is used to specify a clearance and a label indicating classification of information (as in the example above). A possible use of the EXTERNAL STRUCTURE statement is to create Universal Privileges, as discussed below; its use is also illustrated in Example 4 of Annex B. We believe that these recommendations are both necessary and sufficient for a closed secure system. The other type of environment is one in which there is a mixture of uncleared users working at unprotected consoles connected to the computing central by unprotected communication circuits, and cleared users with protected consoles and protected communication lines. The basic philosophy of a program executing in the user state is that it is able to process anything that it has available within the region of core memory (or logical address space) assigned to it. It is the responsibility of the Operating System to create a protection system which ensures that a user who is running a particular program is authentic. Assurance of security control. However, practical limitations in the capabilities of display devices or printers may make alternative procedures necessary. Probably the most serious risk in system software is incomplete design, in the sense that inadvertent loopholes exist in the protective barriers and have not been foreseen by the designers. Such special hand-maintained logs should be in addition to the automatic logging performed by the system. For example, certain security components require all information within the component to be handled via special channels, and this fact is explicitly stated on any piece of information protected by the component. In the Appendix, examples are given which suggest how such algorithms may be applied, but the computer system may not be able to establish classification level or applicable special caveats and labels in every circumstance. For each terminal it will maintain the following information: The first three items above may be time and date dependent; different parameters may be specified for different periods, such as normal working hours, holidays, weekends, and night shifts. The card deck (or magnetic tape or magnetic disc) detailing the security control system and the tables produced during the generation process contain the most sensitive information resident in the computer system. Note that all relationships, including hierarchical ones, must be explicitly stated in terms of classification labels; the software cannot be expected to infer that one classification subsumes another. Authentication words must be changed as frequently as prescribed by the approved issuing source. Weaknesses can result from improper design or from failure to check adequately for combinations of circumstances that can lead to unpredictable consequences. Depending on the sensitivity of information or operating conditions (circuit noise, interruptions, etc.) MERGE RULES, discussed more fully below, contain the information that allows the system to determine automatically the classification of information that results from merging information of various classifications. 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