NY: Merrill. Students verbalize the steps while completing the problem and note their completion of the steps on the monitoring sheet. Program accommodations and modifications are available to children who receive services under IDEA or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. The seventh grade class is doing math, but one student is using Sesame Street blocks to work on counting. Figure 3. Add 7 + 2 and record 9, no hundreds to carry. Special Needs Educational Consultant, Judi Munday, has put together a 19-part program to help those with children who have special needs, be it language delays or deficits, dyslexia, or difficulty with math. Use practical tasks like dividing cake, water or an apple, to practice fractions. For newer teachers, learning that you need to modify work for kids of various levels can be a bit overwhelming. In general education classrooms, adaptations and modifications in mathematics instruction are appropriate for all students, not just students with LD. Refer to this checklist of common modifications and accommodations to get to know options for struggling students. When we work with children, it is very important to set our teaching goals. Conceptual number readiness is essential for the development of addition and subtraction skills (Ariel,1992). Showing work on math Remember, that a modified lesson in an inclusive classroom is a lesson where the objective and/or learning materials have been changed to meet the needs of a special learner. The 10 steps are: Hammill and Bartel (in Polloway & Patton, 1993) offer many suggestions for modifying mathematics instruction for students with LD. Click the "References" link above to hide these references. When using grouping as a modification, however, the teacher must allow for flexibility in the groups so that students with math disabilities have the opportunity to interact and learn with all members of the class (see Rivera in this series for cooperative learning information). Beattie and Algozzine (cited in McCoy & Prehm, 1987) recommend the use of dice rolls, spinners, and playing cards to give students extra practice with fact memorization and to promote interest in the task by presenting a more game-like orientation. Instructional time is brief, often consisting of a short modeling of the skill without a period of guided practice. Table 1. Basic number concept involves the understanding of how many objects are associated with a particular number. According to Ariel (1992), students with LD must acquire (a) general developmental readiness, and (b) conceptual number readiness. Providing adaptations is often very effective for helping students with mathematics disabilities successfully use facts to solve computational problems. Strategies for teaching learners with special needs (5th ed.). Modifying Instruction: Teaching Students with ADD. Mercer, C. D. (1992). The plan may also include alternative programming and transition plans. (1987). Further, everyday examples involve students personally in the instruction and encourage them to learn mathematics for use in their lives. The mathematical ability of many students with LD can be developed successfully in the general education classroom with proper accommodations and special education instructional support. special needs students. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter. Add 5 + 7 and record 12, put the "1" above the tens. I will be specializing in math as opposed to English during the 2018-2019 school year. Some examples are the abacus, a talking or large-button calculator or a math window tool. Examine the math relationships in the problem. Math books often include problems requiring the student to make leaps in logic to learn new skills without showing the steps required to do those problems. Use numbers frequently in the classroom, to help the children practice. Add 3 + 4 and record 7, no tens to carry. Here are teaching strategies to use for each stage of multiplication development: How to teach multiplication facts using concrete strategies that build conceptual understanding. Teaching Kids with LD | For Families | Kids' Voices | Expert Advice | LD Resources
Sped Sheets now has math worksheets modified for special education. Examples of Modified Assignments for Students with Special Needs. Follow a standard format for developing worksheets. Let the child provide oral responses instead of written where appropriate to demonstrate an understanding of the concept. Polloway and Patton (1993) suggest that the components of effective instruction play an important role in the success of students with disabilities in general education mathematics instruction. The class is watching a video, but one student who is blind is sent out of the room because she can’t see. Tips for Modifying Mathematics Computational Assignnments. If you are trying to modify for students who need modifications, you may feel like you are failing them from time to time. Teachers of mathematics will find that simple changes to the presentation of mathematical concepts enable students to gain a clearer understanding of the process rather than a merely mechanically correct response. Determine the math knowledge needed to solve the problem. All Rights Reserved. She provides practical solutions and helpful tips for choosing curriculum and modifying and adapting instruction. Move gradually to increasing the number of problems (not more than 20 problems) and decreasing the amount of time to complete the assignment. By contrast, small-group practice where students with math disabilities complete problems and then check within the group for the correct answer, use self-checking computer software programs, and receive intermittent teacher interaction are positive modifications for increasing time for mathematics instruction. Adaptations and modifications in the instruction of computational skills are numerous and can be divided into two areas: memorizing basic facts and solving algorithms or problems. Arrays can be used in combination with partial products to modify the multiplication process, thereby enabling students with math disabilities to gain further insight into the multiplication process. 1. By definition, special education is “specially designed instruction” (§300.39). Finally, modeling is another effective strategy for helping students solve computational problems. Beyond the "traditional" mathematical reinforcement style, which concentrates on obtaining the "right answer," students with mathematics disabilities may benefit from alternative reinforcement patterns that provide positive recognition for completing the correct steps in a problem regardless of the outcome (McCoy & Prehm, 1987). By concentrating on the process of mathematics rather than on the product, students may begin to feel some control over the activity. Limit the need for showing work: Require students to “show work” on only a few problems. Using these ideas and thoughts on math interventions for special ed, you will now be able to stock up your classroom with daily use items for math help, to plan functional activities for both young and older students and make math real and practical for all children with special needs. The person modifying the curriculum must consistently deliver the Yes/No strategy to the student. Problem-solving can be adapted and modified for students with mathematics disabilities in several different ways (see Kelly & Carnine in this series for additional word problem-solving instructional strategies). (1994). Use of manipulatives is encouraged to provide realistic and obvious illustrations of the underlying mathematical concepts being introduced. Ariel (1992) stresses the need for all students to develop skill in readiness, computation, and problem-solving skills. Rewrite the number in the hundreds place. When teaching math to students with autism, math curriculum choice is critical. Explore alternative ways to solve the problem. 7. Children with special needs often struggle with the concept of numbers and may need a lot of practice in this area before they can be taught higher skills. Highly gifted students may require more intense modification such as grade skipping in mathematics. Another idea is to use fingers to learn to add and subtract. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are increasingly receiving most of their mathematics instruction in general education classrooms. You will probably find that most of your students with attention deficit disorder tend to benefit from some type of instructional modification, which is the cornerstone of helping students with attention deficit disorder succeed in the classroom. Modification entails altering the content taught, whether that means omitting or adding to the curriculum or changing the standards for assessment and evaluation based on a student’s needs and limitations. Ariel, A. For specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in basic math or applied math, provide step-by-step models demonstrating how to solve math problems. Adapting instruction for mainstreamed and at risk student (2nd ed.). When it comes to tests, there are other ways to show mastery than a multiple choice test. Students sometimes come about these naturally, but many are taught by teachers. Step five: Write the answer in number form. Computation involves not only memorization of basic facts, but also utilization of these facts to complete computational algorithms. Salend (1994) lists suggestions for modifying mathematics assignments in computation. This math sheet can be modified by having the student complete alternate math operations with the numbers on the page. Add 4 + 5 and record 9, no hundreds to carry. Wood, J. W. (1992). Several cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies can be used effectively. It can be tricky to know the perfect level of complexity to modify your content to. Adjustments in classroom environment, curriculum planning, and assessment, will help you accommodate and challenge each member of your class. Examples of Modified Assignments for Students with Special Needs Here are some examples of modifications. Additionally, adapting and modifying instruction for students creates a more positive atmosphere that encourages students to take risks in problem-solving, which strengthens student understanding of the concept (McCoy & Prehm, 1987). (1992). Once the student has made a Yes/No decision, the student Understanding how to use a calculator and practicing its use in real-life situations will help independent living. Creating inclusive classrooms (2nd ed.). Sometimes students with special needs may not be able to understand fractions, however they will need to understand commonly used terms like “half” and “quarter”. Be willing to acknowledge when a student in your class might need more or less complexity with their modifications. Teaching math to special needs children is slightly different from teaching math in a regular classroom. The six steps are: Further, Mercer (1992) identifies the components necessary for students to engage in successful problem-solving. Let the children be creative as well as learn math, by asking them to draw a picture of their family, and then counting their family members with them. But in a diverse, inclusive classroom, some students will also need accommodations and modifications to access the curriculum and express what they know. Adaptations and modifications come in many forms. Finally, teachers must evaluate the amount of time spent in instruction, the use of effective instructional practices, student progress (see Bryant in this series), and the use of Real-life activities that encourage active, purposeful learning in the mathematics classroom. To this end, teachers should be aware of the necessity for adapting and modifying the environment to facilitate appropriate, engaging instruction for these students. Modification: A student is given 10 math problems for homework, although the rest of the class received 20. In addition, teachers can isolate the source of difficulty and provide for specific accommodations in that area. According to Merger, the problem-solving process involves 10 steps, which can be expanded into learning strategies to enable students with math disabilities to be more effective in solving word problem. The classroom is arranged with desks in groups of five, but one student is seated in a group with only two desks, one for him and one for his assistant. Some examples are the abacus, a talking or large-button calculator or a math window tool. This is why learning the different number figures through touch can be very effective. In the addition process, McCoy and Prehm (1987) present three alternatives to the standard renaming method for solving problems, including expanded notation (see Figure 1 ) partial sums (see Figure 2), and Hutchings' low-stress algorithm (see Figure 3). This Grade 8 science vocabulary activity has become a YES/NO activity. Salend (1994) recommended that new math concepts be introduced through everyday situations as opposed to worksheets. These special devices or tools must be introduced early in instruction, so that the child learns how to use them and is comfortable with them in the future. Further adaptations and modifications in computational instruction include color coding of the desired function for the computation problem (Ariel, 1992), either ahead of time by the teacher or during independent practice by the student.