Our research led to 22 articles with information relevant to the subject of police use of force. Herbert’s normative order system, which he referred to a police subculture, may be integrate with occupational templates because it explains how situational circumstances may trigger police responses designed to satisfy occupational goals. However, TASER chest shots were banned. The Metropolitan Police Act, 1829 - The Metropolitan Police Act, 1829 Research Papers discuss a new law that provided a more efficient police force. This research was guided by a procedural justice theoretical perspective. Excessive use of force by police is a tricky phenomenon to identify and explain. An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. In a study of how the occupational goals of police may sometimes conflict with rule of law practices, Kane and Cronin (2011) examined the extent to which police officers used force in situations that may have been characterized by the “asshole” process. Essays.io ️ Los Angeles Police Department, Research Paper Example from students accepted to Harvard, Stanford, and other elite schools An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. Your privacy is extremely important to us. In: Manning PK, Van Maanen J (eds) Policing: a view from the street. Unnecessary force usually represents the proper use of force at the immediate moment of application, but which could have been avoided had officers not allowed, or caused, the incident to escalate (Fyfe 1986). Use this topic or order a custom research paper, written exactly how you need it to be. The writer is providing … !” That is, although it is possible to mobilize the government without using the police, it is often not feasible to do so. It is also likely that people who experience physical abuse at the hands of police may suffer emotional trauma. Retrieved 2 Nov 2012. He concluded that the most of the presented information about possible dysfunctions and health damage associating with TASER devices is not reliable. During this formative period in a police officer’s career, FTOs can help new officers interpret street encounters in ways that allow them to learn and practice good policing through the metaphorical lenses of a protection of life mandate. The police represent the legitimate force of governmental control in society. professional specifically for you? Once they complete their field training programs, police officers may continue to practice good policing and the protection of life in both patrol and specialized settings. Adding controls that account for important context and civilian behavior reduces, but cannot fully explain, these disparities. ), often for their stated positions on certain issues, such as violent crime, fear of crime, urban disorder, etc. ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. And it is this general right to use coercive force that makes possible both the best and worst practices of policing. In many American police departments, the average staffing ratios call for one sergeant for every nine patrol officers (Walker and Katz 2010), and while scant research highlights what supervisors actually do, at least one study suggests that low spans-of-control (i.e., high ratio of supervisors to officers) decreased excessive force (Terrill 2001). The writer is providing an overview of the topic and its most important points. Herbert (1998, p. 347) observes that officer workgroups place differential values on the normative orders in ways that “provide guidelines and justifications for” workgroup enforcement activities. IvyPanda. This research paper identified classic occupational templates of the police use of force in an effort to identify context within which the excessive use of force may be considered. This is a public problem we shouldn't leave behind. Precincts characterized by the highest rates of racially concentrated structural disadvantage also had the highest rates of police misconduct. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. This research asks whether the conflict perspective can explain which groups are more likely to approve of police use of force, and whether several dimensions of power are at issue or just a few. Society and the courts do not require police officers to engage in fist fights with suspects in order to gain compliance. In addition, evidence suggests that when line officers are involved in the development of use of force policies and field tactics designed to reduce police officer violence (i.e., Fyfe 1997), then the use of force within departments tends to decrease, partly because police officers view themselves as contributors to the policy development process, rather than simply as people who need to be controlled. Since William Westley (1970) published his classic ethnography of police in Indiana (which was actually published 20 years after his dissertation work that produced the findings) in which he described for the first time the importance officers and police organizations placed on making felony arrests, several researchers have replicated Westley’s methodology in an effort to highlight several aspects of the police occupation that previously had been generally unknown. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp 207–225, Fyfe J (1997) Good policing. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. Thus, rather than representing the product of malice or the inclination to “punish,” unnecessary force generally results from police officer’s professional incompetence. McGraw-Hill, New York, Weber M, Owen D, Strong TB (2004) The vocation lectures: “Science as a Vocation” and “Politics as a Vocation,” (trans: Livingstone R). Adding controls that account for important context and civilian behavior reduces, but cannot fully explain, these disparities. In doing so, the driver of the pickup truck left the officer with two categories of choice: (1) make a tactical retreat, perhaps to his vehicle where he could have radioed for a supervisor to join him at the scene in an effort to avoid the use of force; and (2) increase the dosage of coercion in order to secure the driver’s compliance. 1983, Barnhill JH (2010) Watts riots (1965). To date, the beating of Rodney King represents the archetype of police brutality, and it encapsulates multiple conceptual perspectives – from the levels of the social interactionist, workgroup, and cultural – aimed at explaining why some police officers resort to excessive force during their encounters with members of the public. The authors concluded that these tools would have a great impact on police methods in the future. Essay on college canteen condensation research paper obstacle college essay, essay on my ambition in life to become a fashion designeressay christmas song: essay writing topic my best friendother ways to say states in an essay how to give your opinion in a research paper, easy outline for research paper: mann gulch critical thinkingthe journey is more important than the destination essay odyssey View POLICE USE OF FORCE TRAINING Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. This is the Federal civil rights statute that allows persons alleging harm by police (and any representative of the State who may have acted under color of authority) to seek damages from both the individual officer(s) and the government agency that employed them. In addition to the direct effects of police brutality to those who experience such abuse, there are often broader sociological consequences that may result when police engage in the excessive use of force, particularly when the force is systemic in nature and occurs in communities whose residents perceive that they have been socially and legally marginalized by their municipal governments. This siege mentality, the Commission argued, led officers to view their relationship with the community at large as adversarial (the “us vs. them” perspective) and appeared to legitimize the excessive use of force by police against suspects in an environment that all but guaranteed immunity from accountability (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). After a few hundred yards, and two siren “chirps,” the driver of the pickup truck finally pulls to the curb. Participants came into contact with the police under various circumstances, including physical conflicts. At what point did the appropriate use of force by the police become excessive? Documenting police use of force has been an issue in the United States since at least 1931. For his failure to submit to police authority in ways that satisfied the five LAPD officers at the scene, King was “Tazed” once, struck with police batons 56 times (several of which were blows to the head), and kicked six times by officers (Independent Commission 1991). However, such tools might worsen the symptoms of mentally ill people. When focusing on the last point in the encounter – i.e., the instance immediately preceding the shooting – the force used may be justifiable since the police were compelled to protect their lives and perhaps the lives of bystanders. In addition, the authors emphasized the significance of further research in this area. People report about cases when law officers have used excessive force against them. Law Soc Rev 37:513–547, Terrill W (2001) Police coercion. Research Paper Topics; Research Paper Examples; Order; Criminal Justice. Although the examination of unnecessary force is largely beyond the scope of this research paper, it is important to at least identify because (1) it represents a component of the overall use of force construct, and (2) likely happens more frequently than does excessive force, often without the subsequent application of accountability remedies (Fyfe 1986). Although there are no national data on the subject, it seems clear that people who experience police brutality can suffer physical harms ranging from minor aches and pains to serious injury, and in some cases, death. The main goal of this paper is to research the issue of the police use of force involving mentally ill people. The issue of law-enforcement activities that affect people with psychic disorders is highly controversial. Although no identified studies have found reliable empirical support for Muir’s typology (see, for example, Hochstedler (1981)), none has tested the typology in a setting that replicates that in which Muir conducted his research. IvyPanda. At the very least, Muir’s typology provides a useful taxonomy for efficiently describing certain officer characteristics that are easily recognized – i.e., enforcer. An officer formulates and carries out a decision to use force against a citizen by encoding situational information, making a decision to act, developing a plan of action, and initiating action. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. In the case Tennessee v. Garner (1985), the Supreme Court abolished the common law custom that had historically allowed police officers to use deadly force against fleeing suspects who posed no threat to life. Rates of misconduct decreased as diversity increased, independent of external factors that often influence organizational rates of misconduct. In 7,512 adult custody arrests…fewer than one out of five arrests involved police use of physical force. Excessive use of force will be minimized only if governing boards select chief administrators who are actively interested in controlling and preventing excessive use of force. The research also considered the nature of training required to facilitate the development of these skills/abilities. As alluded to above, identifying excessive force is made allthe-more difficult by virtue of the use of physical coercion that is a large part of how the police fulfill their mandate in society. Also check the list of 100 most popular argumentative research paper topics. For present purposes, Herbert notes that normative orders – such as law and safety or law and competence – may conflict with one another as officers use their coercive authority to satisfy one normative order (e.g., competence), perhaps at the expense of another (e.g., law or bureaucratic control). We pursue this by conducting a content analysis of use of force polices from the twenty largest U.S. cities by population. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. The man leads them on a 5-min foot pursuit through alleys, over fences, and across a vacant lot until they finally catch him in an open field. Previous research regarding police use-of-force incidents has typically categorized use of. This problem could be ameliorated by the implementation of a national reporting system on the police use of force. Although police departments can use recruitment as a tool to prevent the excessive use of force by their officers, the best prevention is likely based on a multilevel approach that involves local governing bodies selecting chief administrators with strong commitments to transparency and the virtues of “good” policing. In the process of taking Frye into custody, officers also arrested his mother and brother for unlawfully interfering with the arrest, which led the crowd to switch from throwing bottles to throwing rocks and other large items at police (Barnhill 2010). Future of Policing - Research papers on the future of policing delve into the topics of policing in America and discuss the future policing will have after increasing militarization of police forces, and the use of excessive force. The officer exits his vehicle, walks to the truck, and instructs the driver to put down his window. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of criminal justice research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. ...vigan city Research paper Police Brutality Introduction Police brutality is the wanton use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer. In contrast to the professionals were the “enforcers:” Officers who had the highest propensity to use excessive force against suspects because they (1) generally lacked the capacity to fathom the often “tragic” conditions that characterized the lives of many people they encountered, and (2) were quick to resort to violence when they perceived minimal threats to their safety or when they felt compelled to assert police authority. The writer is not to take a stance, either for or against deadly force. As noted in the opening pages of this research paper, police brutality – or excessive use of force – occurs for myriad reasons across multiple levels of analysis: the psychological, sociological, social contextual, and organizational. During his research, Muir observed four police officer personality “types” that were differentiated by two elements: the abilities to (1) empathize with those whom they encountered on the street, and (2) morally reconcile need to use force in certain circumstances. It seems clear that, while people subjected to direct forms of police brutality suffer the most immediate harm from such abuse, those residing in communities – even cities – in which the police engage in the excessive use of force with little accountability also experience the resulting harms. Whereas Van Maanen (1978) operationalized the “asshole” perspective as one rooted primarily in the social interactionist tradition, there is evidence that the asshole process also may be driven in part by police subcultural pressures. To others, the kicks and punches delivered by officers at the conclusion of the encounter were not excessive, but rather “just desserts” visited upon a “victim” who should have cooperated with the police in the first place. The reason why Section 1983 is likely the most common legal mechanism invoked in excessive use of force claims is because the statute relaxes the usual requirement placed on plaintiffs that they exhaust all lower administrative and legal outlets before filing a claim in Federal court. The appropriate use of force occurs when police officers use physical coercion that is proportional to a suspect’s resistance to gain compliance and/or diffuse a violent or potentially violent encounter. Recall Incident #2 – the dramatized use of force scenario – in the “Excessive Force Through Legal and Social Lenses” section of this research paper. New York University Press, New York, Kerner Commission (1968) Report of the National Advisory Commission on civil disorders. This research paper on Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill was written and submitted by your fellow student. As cited by Klockars (1985), we maintain a collective police force because of what Egon Bittner wrote in 1970: “something-ought-not-to-be-happening-aboutwhich-something-ought-to-be-done.. The police accomplish this mandate by exercising their “general right to use coercive force” (Klockars 1985) – a right bestowed upon them by the American public through the Executive Branch of government. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Skolnick J, Fyfe JJ (1993) Above the law: police and the excessive use of force. Finally, recruitment and supervision to limit police and the excessive use of force seem to have their highest probabilities of success if the overall police department culture supports the structural efforts in place to guard against brutality. (2014). Criminology 43:469–498, Kane R, Cronin S (2011) Maintaining order under the rule of law: occupational templates and the police use of force. More than 7,000 security force agencies in the United States apply CEWs including the use of TASER devices. Incident 1: Two police officers on foot see a man on a public sidewalk who matches the description of a robbery suspect. This is another feature of many use of force incidents that makes identifying brutality or excessive use of force difficult. The young man screams in surprise and pain, while the officer repeats the motion of bashing his head against the hood. The personnel processes police departments use to recruit and hire officers play a crucial role in shaping subsequent organizational behavior, but in ways that are perhaps more subtle than they are apparent. Through the use of discriminant function analysis, Kane and Cronin reported that during coercive exchanges with suspects (i.e., situations that ultimately ended in arrest), suspects who demonstrated “verbal antagonism” toward officers – but not physical resistance – were likely to be “punched” and “kicked” during the incident. The researchers analyzed the connection between such perceptions and socio-demographics and contextual factors. Verbal antagonism appeared to elicit “asshole” responses in the form of punches and kicks – use of force techniques that usually do not exist on a police use of force continuum. Police Ethics - Use of Deadly Force by Law Enforcement Research Papers look at the political, legal, and social side to this debate. Therefore, when an officer is accused of brutality, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to determine where the justified use of force may have become excessive. 629; GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper … Thus, integrating the Section 1983 statute with Supreme Court decisions results in plaintiffs gaining ready access to Federal court for the purposes of attempting to hold police officers and the agencies/governments that employed them accountable for brutality, though trial courts must adhere to Graham’s “objective reasonableness” requirement of evaluating the use of force from the standpoint of a reasonable officer at the scene. A typical example of this occurs when police respond to a man with a gun call. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. View Police use of force Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Approximately 8% of the affected die from this medical condition (Nielsen, 2014). Toch (1996) argued that for the purposes of controlling police violence, field training officers were instrumental in bridging the gap for new officers between the messages they received in the training academy and the messages they received from their peers once on the street. Sometimes looking at examples of successful college essays can help you get the our experience with mark was amazing! ... police brutality is defined as the use of excessive and/ or unnecessary force by police when dealing with civilians. Soc Probl 50:157–180, Muir WK (1977) Police: streetcorner politicians. The popularisation of TASER devices among security forces throughout the world has caused concern about possible health damage (O’Brien & Thom, 2014). Interestingly, when suspects demonstrated physical resistance, but not necessarily verbal antagonism, they were usually subjected to more “normal” types of force, such as chemical sprays, baton strikes, or basic joint locks (Kane and Cronin 2011). The researchers interviewed 60 mentally ill people that experienced police interventions. Police Officer Use of Deadly Force Research Paper. Appealing to occupational templates to help explain the processes by which excessive force may be used and legitimized by police officers is instructive because they offer a social ecological context within which to interpret police brutality that is often absent from the empirical literature that examines excessive force. For example, in the US, the African While there is much concern about the role of race in police use of force, identifying causal effects is difficult. Although some specialists consider ExSD as a real ExDS only in cases of fatality, most researchers admit the existence of other factors that might relate to this syndrome. Goodyear, Santa Monica, pp 221–238, Walker S (2010) Sense and nonsense about crime, drugs, and communities, 7th edn. For this reason, Section 1983 lawsuits are often colloquially referred to as “patterns and practices” suits and generally allege that the brutality (or other problematic behaviors) occurred because the police agency failed to train and/or supervise the officers properly and/or negligently retained the officers as employees. In: Danver SL (ed) Revolts, protests, demonstrations, and rebellions in American history, vol 3. EXCESSIVE FORCE lice use physical force and that it is frequently perceived as excessive. Rather, police officers are legally (and usually administratively) permitted to “skip” steps on the use of force continuum in order to overwhelm a suspect – within reason – to achieve custody. Some would conclude that the force used by the officer was unnecessary, excessive, and perhaps even illegal; others may conclude that the officer rightly punished a smart-aleck kid who needed to be taught to respect authority. Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. Several classic police scholars have developed occupational templates to help describe the circumstances under which some police officers engage in brutality. Tyler (1990) has argued that societies are more likely than not to comply with the law when they believe in the morality of the law and in the legitimacy of the government making the law. Violent incidents in Los Angeles (1965 and 1992), Detroit (1967), Chicago (1968), Liberty City-Miami (1980), Cincinnati (2001) – even Tulsa in 1921 – were not so much riots as they were urban rebellions. If the public becomes polarized over issues related to the distribution of legal authority, the government may lose legitimacy and find it difficult to fulfill its “regulatory role” in society (Sunshine and Tyler 2003, p. 515) without having to resort to the frequent use of physical coercion. Hence, the following research question was formulated to guide this project: Does the police use of conducted electrical weapons in cases with mentally ill people is totally justified. The authors emphasized the importance of the improvement of a procedural justice framework for officers that interact with mentally ill people. Law Soc Rev 6:69–89, Kane R (2002) The social ecology of police misconduct. The unaccountability was particularly pronounced under Chief Daryl Gates, who enjoyed civil service protection and indemnity from lawsuits (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). This finding supports Muir’s observation that even socalled professional police officers may become “enforcers” under the circumstances that elicit particularly strong responses, and perhaps where local social constraints are wanting. In each event, the triggering incident was related to some form of police abuse, and all post-riot analyses identified abusive police practices, largely in communities characterized by racially concentrated economic resource deprivation and social marginalization, as major causal factors (see: Independent Commission 1991; Kerner Commission 1968; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Muir, for example, identified one “professional” officer among those he studied who was highly communicative and restrained in virtually all street encounters except when he responded to sexual or domestic assaults against female victims. Seventy Western Australia Police … Indeed, King would later report that he fled from the CHP cruiser because he was driving while intoxicated and feared that an arrest would violate the provisions of his parole (the result of an earlier robbery conviction) (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). To provide a framework for assessing the appropriateness of the use of force, the Supreme Court applied an “objective reasonableness” standard (via the Search and Seizure Clause of the Fourth Amendment) in the case Graham v. Connor (1989), holding that the legality of the use of force must be evaluated based on the judgment of a “reasonable” officer at the scene of the event rather than through a “retrospective” lens. Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) is one of the most widely used by security forces instruments. To address this question, the observation method of research was applied. Perhaps this is why excessive force, or brutality, often seems to occur unchecked in communities that are unable to advocate for themselves, making it difficult to hold police officers accountable for the use of unauthorized violence. 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