[9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. New 75 mm guns were developed specifically for anti-aircraft use. These guns offered much improved performance against tanks but because they fired High Explosive rounds that were inferior to those of the 75mm guns, the larger calibre guns never completely replaced the older models. Its relatively low velocity and a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon. Rimailho. The 75mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75mm M1897 field gun. This 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) round travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds of TNT filling and choice of Super Quick (SQ) or Delay (PD) with 0.05 or 0.15 seconds of delay fuse. These and other modifications achieved the desired result: the long-term retention of hydraulic fluid and compressed air inside the recoil system, even under the worst field conditions. The western allies countered by equipping increasing numbers of M4 Medium tanks with the 76 mm gun M1 for the Americans and the Ordnance QF 17 pounder for the British. That second cylinder contained a freely floating piston which separated the surging oil from a confined volume of compressed air. 1897. The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. French artillery team run up behind a field gun -- next to gun is a metal case with shells. sitalkes wrote:I've been reading about the American WW1 guns sent to Britain in 1940 and wonder if somebody can clear up a few points for me.As I understand it, the 18 pounder had a 3.3"/84mm bore. Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. If enemy tanks were encountered in numbers, specialist Tank Destroyer units were to be called in. This action absorbed the recoil progressively as the internal air pressure rose and, at the end of recoil, generated a strong but decreasing back pressure that returned the gun forward to its original position. [citation needed] In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. FROM "L'ECOLE DU COMMANDANT DU BATTERIE, I PARTIE, CANON 75", Of THE FRENCH ARTILLERY SCHOOL, OF DECEMBER, 1916, CORRECTED TO MARCH, 1917. The French Army had to wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes (e.g. The wheel brakes could be swung under each wheel ("abattage"), and, together with the trail spade, they immobilized the gun during firing. However, as an anti-tank gun, the gun was mediocre at best: its low muzzle velocity (570 m/s, caused by the short L/36 barrel and obsolete French 75mm ammo) allowed it to penetrate only 75mm armor at 500m (in World of Tanks terms, it’s probably somewhere around 90mm pen). The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. The French artillery entered the war in August 1914 with more than 4,000 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns (1,000 batteries of 4 guns each). 1903. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War II artillery of the United States, List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation, Armor penetration table of US 75 mm guns, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/75_mm_Gun_M2/M3/M6?oldid=4377477, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 60 mm, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 76 mm, TM 9-2800 Standard Artillery and Fire Control Material (dated February 1944). Progressive traversing together with small changes in elevation could be carried out while continuously firing, called "fauchage" or "sweeping fire". Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. There is a very large difference between the French data on the performance of the 47mm/L53 and the German data. During his service with the American Expeditionary Forces, Captain (and future U.S. President) Harry S. Truman commanded a battery of French 75s. The M3 75mm gets a lot of flak thrown at it by ignorant people who think it was a low velocity gun that could not penetrate armor. Note on reverse "24.X.18". The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. Photo: Peter Lau, Rock Publishing But even before the 57 entered testing, in 1890 General Mathieu, Director of Artillery at the Ministry of War, had been informed that Konrad Haussner, a German engineer working at the Ingolstadt arsenal, had patented an oil-and-compressed-air long-recoil system. The venerable soixante-quinze was a decent anti-tank gun but was heavy and much harder to conceal than the newer, small, high-velocity, small calibre anti-tank weapons. This was enough to take on the front armor of the Tiger tanks. The '75 mm modèle 1922', '75 mm modèle 1924' and '75 mm modèle 1927'[22] of 50 calibre were developed from the 62.5 calibre '75 mm Schneider modèle 1908' mounted on the Danton-class battleships. They were used in the defence of Britain, usually mounted on de Dion motor lorries using the French mounting which the British referred to as the "Breech Trunnion". Longer derivative of the M2. In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. HOWEVER, the French 75 was not the weapon the French needed in WWI. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. They were also the main armament of the Saint-Chamond tank in 1918. The US 75 mm gun tank gun M2 and the later M3 were the standard American tank guns of the Second World War. For political purposes, the sale to the British Purchasing Commission was made through the US Steel Corporation. I read that there were 851 American 18 pdrs and 900 ex-American French “75s” (the ancient 75mm N 1897 field gun) but both seem to be called the M1917. History. By 1944 this had become the standard British tank gun equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe. However, this is just a myth. [11] The basic, unmodified gun was known in British service as "Ordnance, QF, 75mm Mk 1", although many of the guns were issued to units on converted or updated mountings. … Each recoil cycle on the French 75, including the return forward, lasted about two seconds, permitting a maximum attainable firing rate of about 30 rounds per minute. In British service, the AP shell was used without its explosive filling, and as such was referred to as "AP Shot M61". 3-4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling), A 5.3-kilogram (12 lb) impact-detonated, thin-walled steel, high-explosive (HE) shell with a time-delay, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 14:25. An early adaption of the weapon was for anti-aircraft purposes. Each Mle 1897 75 mm field gun battery (4 guns) was manned by highly trained crews of 170 men led by 4 officers recruited among graduates of engineering schools. These upgraded field guns This moring I you tubed 88mm flak gun and saw it … The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to … Thus, with time, the French 75 batteries became routinely used to cut corridors with high-explosive shells, across the belts of German barbed wire. Autore: Steven J. Zaloga Codice: 228M024288 Prenota Richiedi informazioni Dillo ad un amico. The 76mm gun was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity. At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. After it was judged possible, a formal request was sent out on 13 July 1892. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. US Army War College. The 75mm M2 and M3 tank guns of the M3 Lee and M4 Sherman Medium tanks, the 75mm M6 tank gun of the M24 Chaffee light tank and the 75mm gun of the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell bomber all used the same ammunition as the M1897. By the end of the war about 12,000 had been produced. British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity anti-tank guns such as the Ordnance QF 2 pounder and Ordnance QF 6 pounder for their primary armament. [7] This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. For this role the tank gun required good general-purpose performance but anti-tank capability was not paramount. Because of the gun's traversing ability, the greater the distance to the enemy concentration, the wider the area that could be swept. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. [10], In June 1940, with many British field guns lost in the Battle of France, 895 M1897 field guns and a million rounds of ammunition were purchased from the US Army. The US decided early in World War I to switch from 3-inch (76 mm) to 75 mm calibre for its field guns. The gun could be traversed laterally 3 degrees to the sides by sliding the trail on the wheel's axle. Along with new ammunition, these features increased the effective range and allowed the gun to be used as an anti-tank gun, in which form it equipped the first tank destroyer battalions. Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. A version used on the early Medium Tank M3. A major improvement was the placement of improved silver-alloy rings on the freely moving piston which separated the compressed air and the hydraulic fluid inside the main hydro-pneumatic recoil cylinder. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) | Steven J. Zaloga | download | B–OK. The British after experiencing the effectiveness of the American 75mm tank guns in the infantry support role opted to adopt the American caliber and ammunition by the expedient of boring-out the 6 pounder tank gun to make the Ordnance QF 75 mm. French 75 shells, at least initially in 1914, were essentially anti-personnel. It was also in service with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), which had been supplied with about 2,000 French 75 field guns. The first US artillery shots in action in World War I were fired by Battery C, 6th Field Artillery on October 23, 1917 with a French 75 named "Bridget" which is preserved today at the United States Army Ordnance Museum. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. During World War 2 these guns also used Costinescu 75 mm anti-tank round. US 75mm AP and APCBC-HE shell models. Two young military engineers from Ecole Polytechnique, Captains Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho, continued development and introduced an improved version in 1896. Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/19326/tunurile-re%C5%9Fi%C5%A3ei, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/721/artileria-rom%C3%A2n%C4%83-%C3%AEn-date-%C5%9Fi-imagini, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! In 1941, these guns began to become surplus when they were gradually being replaced by the M2A1 105 mm M101 split-trail Howitzer; some were removed from their towed carriages and installed on the M3 Half-Track as the M3 Gun Motor Carriage (GMC). The field gun origins of the ordnance and ammunition ensured that the M2/3/6 series HE round was highly effective for its caliber. The new barrel was made of steel alloy with chrome and nickel with excellent mechanical resistance to pressure which allowed, after modifying the firing brake, the recovery arch and the sighting devices an increase of the range from 8.5 km to 11.2 km and a rate of fire of 20 rounds/minute. M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3. Given the impressive rate of fire (15 rounds a minute), both sides utilised the gun in an AA role. 3. This allowed it to be used in an anti-aircraft role. Pages 80–93 in "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel (1920)" United States. 2. The smoothness of this system had no equal in 1897, and for at least another ten years. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. In the meantime it had to do with a total of about four thousand de Bange 90 mm, 120 mm and 155 mm field and converted fortress guns, all without recoil brakes, that were effective but inferior in rate of fire to the more modern German heavy artillery. fieldgun,popularlyknownasthesoixante … During the 1930s, most M1897A2 and A3 (French made) and M1897A4 (American made) guns were subsequently modernized for towing behind trucks by mounting on the modern carriage M2A3 which featured a split trail, pneumatic rubber tires allowing towing at any speed, an elevation limit increased to 45 degrees, and traverse increased to 30 degrees left and right. I read that the Tank Destroyer forces started with the famed French 75mm gun. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. field gun… 21868°— 17 (3) .377770 the french 75-mm. It differs from the M3 gun, only in having a seat for the spline machined in the tube. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. The gun could not be elevated beyond eighteen degrees, unless the trail spade had been deeply dug into the ground; however, the 75 mm field gun was not designed for plunging fire. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas. The 75mm Gun Model of 1917 (British) was an interim measure, based on the British QF 18 pounder, produced by the United States in World War I after it had decided to switch from 3-inch (76mm) to 75mm calibre for its field guns. 75-mm Gun. [16] Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace. The 75mm modèle 1897–1915[21] was placed on SMCA modèle 1925 mountings with a vertical elevation of -10 to +70° and a 360° rotation. The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece. Ordnance Dept, May 1920, United States War Department. The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. The first armor-piercing round was the 18 lb (8.2 kg) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped AP round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. ", L’ARTILLERIE FRANÇAISE DE 1945 A 1990 (LES PIÈCES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT), http://www.1939.pl/uzbrojenie/polskie/artyleria/a_75mm_wz97/index.html, Manual For The Battery Commander. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. 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Exceeded 200 million rounds, mostly by private industry time during the 1890s as...