Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. ... Delamarre, Xavier. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt though Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. the Tobiads). In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed him at Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 53. Hellenistic culture was created when Alexander moved place to Hellenistic science differed from Greek science in at least two ways: first, it benefited from the cross-fertilization of Greek ideas with those that had developed in the larger Hellenistic world; secondly, to some extent, it was supported by royal patrons in the kingdoms founded by Alexander's successors. The trends of Hellenization were therefore accompanied by Greeks adopting native ways over time, but this was widely varied by place and by social class. In spite of this shift, Hellenistic philosophy continued to influence these three religious traditions and the Renaissance thought which followed them. Hellenistic culture was created when Alexander moved place to place concurring and befriending the people of their country. The Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achaean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or even the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in AD 330. Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendancy of the Roman Republic. What was Alexander favorite name for a city? It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire, although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. The kingdom of Meroë was in constant contact with Ptolemaic Egypt and Hellenistic influences can be seen in their art and archaeology. Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. A number of the best-known works of Greek sculpture belong to the Hellenistic period, including Laocoön and his Sons, Venus de Milo, and the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Hellenistic scholars frequently employed the principles developed in earlier Greek thought: the application of mathematics and deliberate empirical research, in their scientific investigations.[128]. When Alexander the Great died (10 June 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. German historian J. G. Droysen coined the word "Hellenistic" during the 19th century, to refer to the expansion of Greek culture after Alexander's death. Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip V's son Perseus incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). In 550 BC, Mago I of Carthage began a series of military reforms which included copying the army of Timoleon, Tyrant of Syracuse. In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. These colonies spread Greek culture widely--into Egypt and India. Alexander's tutor was the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) who impressed upon him the value of Greek culture and philosophy. This varied greatly by location. [13] Following Droysen, Hellenistic and related terms, e.g. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. 173-179. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence, though it retained nominal autonomy. As far as the Indian subcontinent, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was broad and far-reaching, and had effects for several centuries following the forays of Alexander the Great. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. For Greeks, the center of the earth was no longer Delphi; the center had shifted dramatically. Hellenization, or Hellenism, refers to the spread of Greek culture that had begun after the conquest of Alexander the Great in the fourth century, B.C.E. [113] Gymnasiums and their Greek education, for example, were for Greeks only. 360 300 B.C. Alexander also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and his adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. In this selection, he talks about shepherding as a way of life. Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. This was a time of advances in learning, math, art, and architecture. Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. The spread of Hellenistic culture. His legacy was the spread of Greek-influenced culture to most of the known world which lasted for several centuries after his death. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC. Southern Italy (Magna Graecia) and south-eastern Sicily had been colonized by the Greeks during the 8th century. [45] A staunch ally of Rome, Massalia retained its independence until it sided with Pompey in 49 BC and was then taken by Caesar's forces. STUDY. Pages 7-8. [59][61] These cities included newly founded colonies such as Antioch, the other cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Seleucia (north of Babylon) and Dura-Europos on the Euphrates. Walbank et al. [48] The city became a dominant trading hub and center of Hellenistic civilization in Iberia, eventually siding with the Roman Republic against the Carthaginian Empire during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). While there does seem to have been a substantial decline in religiosity, this was mostly reserved for the educated classes.[122]. The coins minted in Massalia have been found in all parts of Liguro-Celtic Gaul. Theaters have also been found: for example, in Ai-Khanoum on the edge of Bactria, the theater has 35 rows – larger than the theater in Babylon. The first of the Diadochi wars broke out when Perdiccas planned to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra and began to question Antigonus I Monophthalmus' leadership in Asia Minor. The kingdoms of Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus were all practically independent by this time as well. Portraits became more realistic, and the obverse of the coin was often used to display a propagandistic image, commemorating an event or displaying the image of a favored god. [22] He was defeated in 288 BC when Lysimachus of Thrace and Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Macedon on two fronts, and quickly carved up the kingdom for themselves. Especially important to Hellenistic science was the city of Alexandria in Egypt, which became a major center of scientific research in the 3rd century BC. The degree of influence that Greek culture had throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms was therefore highly localized and based mostly on a few great cities like Alexandria and Antioch. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. [95] Numismatic evidence shows that Hellenic influence penetrated further inland. While the Hellenistic world incorporated a number of different people, Greek thinking, mores, and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time. Hellenistic poets now sought patronage from kings, and wrote works in their honor. The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Hellenism did not replace local cultures, but gave the wealthy elites a highly attractive alternative culture. Pastoral poetry deals with rural life, especially the lives of shepherds. The Seleucid Antiochus III had allied with Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC, agreeing that they should jointly conquer the lands of the boy-king of Egypt, Ptolemy V. After defeating Ptolemy in the Fifth Syrian War, Antiochus concentrated on occupying the Ptolemaic possessions in Asia Minor. [74] Tigranes' successor Artavasdes II even composed Greek tragedies himself. Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. The worship of dynastic ruler cults was also a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier Pharaonic practice, and established themselves as god-kings. By the time of Mithridates VI Eupator, Greek was the official language of the kingdom, though Anatolian languages continued to be spoken. Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings. Hellenistic monarchies were closely associated with the religious life of the kingdoms they ruled. In 352 BC he annexed Thessaly and Magnesia. Next students investigate how Greek culture spread in the Hellenistic era, with the question: How did Greek trade, travel, and colonies, followed by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic culture, affect increasing connections among regions in Afroeurasia? He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of northwestern India. He kept a core of 500 of them at Apameia. His edicts appear carved on rocks and a number of free-standing pillars which are found right across India. 21–99. [37] The Diadochi also used Thracian mercenaries in their armies and they were also used as colonists. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. Meanwhile, Lysimachus took over Ionia, Seleucus took Cilicia, and Ptolemy captured Cyprus. Abundant traces of Hellenism continued under the Parthian empire. In states such as the Achaean league, this also involved the admission of other ethnic groups into the federation with equal rights, in this case, non-Achaeans. Prag & Quinn (editors). The use of war elephants also became common. It often compares rural and city life. Other civilizations in the ancient world were quickly declining. The Mahabharata compliments them as "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajñā yavanā); e.g., "The Yavanas, O king, are all-knowing; the Suras are particularly so. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice. Elites from Spain to India could participate in Hellenistic culture and become “cosmopolitan,” or a citizen not of a city, but of the world. Match. The setting up of ruler cults was more based on the systematized honors offered to the kings (sacrifice, proskynesis, statues, altars, hymns) which put them on par with the gods (isotheism) than on actual belief of their divine nature. [77] Aretas captured Damascus and built the Petra pool complex and gardens in the Hellenistic style. How did Hellenistic Culture develop or start? Some of the great names of learning in this Age include Archimedes, Hero, and Euclid. Why did the city of … Gravity. [59][61][62][63] The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. Libraries were also present in Antioch, Pella, and Kos. In Asia, Eumenes was betrayed by his own men after years of campaign and was given up to Antigonus who had him executed. In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. [121] The rise of philosophy and the sciences had removed the gods from many of their traditional domains such as their role in the movement of the heavenly bodies and natural disasters. This had already been a feature of Macedonian kingship, which had priestly duties. [93] The peoples around Pontic Olbia, known as the Callipidae, were intermixed and Hellenized Greco-Scythians. Moses Hadas portrayed an optimistic picture of synthesis of culture from the perspective of the 1950s, while Frank William Walbank in the 1960s and 1970s had a materialistic approach to the Hellenistic period, focusing mainly on class relations. Their last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman republic (74 BC). University of California Press. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. Hellenistic warfare was a continuation of the military developments of Iphicrates and Philip II of Macedon, particularly his use of the Macedonian Phalanx, a dense formation of pikemen, in conjunction with heavy companion cavalry. Greek cities and colonies may have exported Greek art and architecture as far as the Indus, but these were mostly enclaves of Greek culture for the transplanted Greek elite. Although Eumenes, satrap of Cappadocia, defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes (possibly with Ptolemy's aid) during his invasion of Egypt (c. 21 May to 19 June, 320 BC). He was successful, bringing back most of these provinces into at least nominal vassalage and receiving tribute from their rulers. Alexander respected the local cultures he conquered, and allowed their customs to continue. Athens later allied itself to Ptolemaic Egypt to throw off Macedonian rule, eventually setting up a religious cult for the Ptolemaic kings and naming one of the city's phyles in honour of Ptolemy for his aid against Macedon. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. The Spartan king Cleomenes III (235–222 BC) staged a military coup against the conservative ephors and pushed through radical social and land reforms in order to increase the size of the shrinking Spartan citizenry able to provide military service and restore Spartan power. After 200 years, only much reduced and rather degenerate states remained,[9] until the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt by Rome. 2 King Philip IIs Macedonian Empire. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire[111] than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the 'barbarians'. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). 250 BC), a student of Herophilos, a new medical sect emerged, the Empiric school, which was based on strict observation and rejected unseen causes of the Dogmatic school. Much of the eastern part of the empire was then conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by the Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey. After Demetrius' death, civil wars between Bactrian kings in India allowed Apollodotus I (from c. 180/175 BC) to make himself independent as the first proper Indo-Greek king (who did not rule from Bactria). Greek philosophers and artist made it their mission to spread their culture. [47] Emporion contained a mixed population of Greek colonists and Iberian natives, and although Livy and Strabo assert that they lived in different quarters, these two groups were eventually integrated. The spread of Greek influence and language is also shown through ancient Greek coinage. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus took the title of king (basileus) and bestowed it on his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, the rest of the Diadochi soon followed suit. Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC) after yet another rebellion under Andriscus. 2 King Philip IIs Macedonian Empire. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. The third war of the Diadochi broke out because of the growing power and ambition of Antigonus. "Hellenistic" is a modern word and a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in ancient Greece. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176–171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.[75]. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). The states of the Hellenistic period were deeply fixated with the past and its seemingly lost glories. Pergamum was also a center of parchment (charta pergamena) production. The third era of ancient Greek history was the Hellenistic Age when the Greek language and culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC[70] to avoid a likely succession crisis. [137][failed verification] Similarly complex devices were also developed by other Muslim engineers and astronomers during the Middle Ages. Hellenistic Geometers such as Archimedes (c. 287–212 BC), Apollonius of Perga (c. 262 – c. 190 BC), and Euclid (c. 325–265 BC), whose Elements became the most important textbook in Western mathematics until the 19th century AD, built upon the work of the Hellenic-era Pythagoreans. He began removing and appointing satraps as if he were king and also raided the royal treasuries in Ecbatana, Persepolis and Susa, making off with 25,000 talents. It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. [135] Another astronomer, Aristarchos of Samos, developed a heliocentric system. The characteristics of the Hellenistic period include the division of Alexander's empire, the spread of Greek culture and language, and the flourishing of the arts, science and philosophy. [148] A parallel can be drawn with the productivity of the city states of Italy during the Renaissance, and their subsequent decline under autocratic rulers. Pyrrhus then went to war with Macedonia in 275 BC, deposing Antigonus II Gonatas and briefly ruling over Macedonia and Thessaly until 272. Despite this, it is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration,[4] compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. 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